Voltimum - 18th edition wiring regulations are now mandatory. Are you compliant?

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Changes to the wiring regulations now stipulate that electrical contractors must ensure electronic systems are fitted with surge protection devices (SPDs). Protecting human life, buildings and its contents against the serious consequences transient overvoltages pose.


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a:20:{i:0;s:81:"Transient overvoltage protection— IET Wiring regulations BS 7671 18th edition";i:1;s:373:"4IET WIRING REGULATIONS BS 7671 18TH EDITION— The IET Wiring Regulations require all new electrical system designs and installations, as well as alterations and additions to existing installations, to be assessed against transient overvoltage risk and, where necessary, protected using appropriate surge protection measures (in the form of Surge Protection Devices SPDs).";i:2;s:2565:"3TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION - INTRODUCTION—Transient overvoltage protectionIntroductionBased on the IEC 60364 series, the 18th Edition of BS 7671 Wiring regulations covers the electrical installation of buildings including the use of surge protection.The 18th Edition of BS 7671 applies to the design, erection and verification of electrical installations, and also to additions and alterations to existing installations. Existing installations that have been installed in accordance with earlier editions of BS 7671 may not comply with the 18th edition in every respect. This does not necessarily mean that they are unsafe for continued use or require upgrading.A key update in the 18th Edition relates to Sections 443 and 534, which concern protection of electrical and electronic systems against transient overvoltages, either as a result of atmospheric origin (lightning) or electrical switching events.Essentially, the 18th Edition requires all new electrical system designs and installations, as well as alterations and additions to existing installations, to be assessed against transient overvoltage risk and, where necessary, protected using appropriate protection measures (in the form of SPDs).Within BS 7671:• Section 443 defines the criteria for risk assessment against transient overvoltages, considering the supply to the structure, risk factors and rated impulse voltages of equipment• Section 534 details the selection and installation of SPDs for effective transient overvoltage protection, including SPD Type, performance and co-ordinationReaders of this guide should be mindful of the need to protect all incoming metallic service lines against the risk of transient overvoltages.BS 7671 provides focussed guidance for theassessment and protection of electrical and electronic equipment intended to be installed on AC mains power supplies.In order to observe the Ligntning Protection Zone LPZ concept within BS 7671 and BS EN 62305, all other incoming metallic service lines, such as data, signal and telecommunications lines, are also a potential route through which transient overvoltages to damage equipment. As such all such lines will require appropriate SPDs.BS 7671 clearly points the reader back to BS EN 62305 and BS EN 61643 for specific guidance. This is covered extensively in the Furse guide to BS EN 62305 Protection Against Lightning.IMPORTANT:Equipment is ONLY protected against transient overvoltages if all incoming / outgoing mains and data lines have protection fitted.Data/TelecomPowerData/TelecomPower";i:3;s:2616:"4IET WIRING REGULATIONS BS 7671 18TH EDITION—Transient overvoltage protection Safeguarding your electrical systems —Why is transient overvoltage protection so important?Transient overvoltages are short duration surges in voltage between two or more conductors (L-PE, L-N or N-PE), which can reach up to 6 kV on 230 Vac power lines, and generally result from:• Atmospheric origin (lightning activity through resistive or inductive coupling (see Figures 02 & 03), and/or• Electrical switching of inductive loadsTransient overvoltages significantly damage and degrade electronic systems. Outright damageto sensitive electronic systems, such ascomputers etc, occurs when transient overvoltages between L-PE or N-PE exceed the withstand voltage of the electrical equipment (i.e. above 1.5 kV for Category I equipment to BS 7671 Table 443.2).Equipment damage leads to unexpected failures and expensive downtime, or risk of fire/electric shock due to flashover, if insulation breaks down.Degradation of electronic systems, however, begins at much lower overvoltage levels and can cause data losses, intermittent outages and shorter equipment lifetimes (see Figure 01).Where continuous operation of electronic systems is critical, for example in hospitals, banking and most public services, degradation must be avoided by ensuring these transient overvoltages, which occur between L-N, are limited below the impulse immunity of equipment. This can be calculated as twice the peak operating voltage of the electrical system, if unknown (i.e. approximately 715 V for 230 V systems). Protection against transient overvoltages can be achieved through installation of a coordinated set of SPDs at appropriate points in the electricalsystem, in line with BS 7671 Section 534 and the guidance provided in this publication.Selecting SPDs with lower (i.e. better) voltage protection levels (UP) is a critical factor, especially where continuous usage of electronic equipment is essential.—02—03DAMAGE> 1.5 kV (L-PE/N-PE)—01—01 Equipment risk –Degradation of electronic systems begins at lower transient overvoltage levels and affects critical electronic systems whenever the impulse immunity of the equipment is compromised.—02 Resistive coupling – Resistively coupled transients are caused by differences in potential between two connected earths.—03 Inductive coupling –Inductively coupled transients are caused by electromagnetic pick-up.Degradation> 2x peakoperating voltage(e.g. 715 V L-N)DAMAGEDAMAGEDegradationDegradationSafe Operating AreaSafeOperatingAreaNominalsystem voltage(e.g. 230 V)";i:4;s:3572:"5TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION - SAFEGUARDING YOUR ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS—Risk assessmentAs far as Section 443 is concerned, the full BS EN 62305-2 risk assessment method must be used for high risk installations such as nuclear or chemical sites where the consequences of transient overvoltages could lead to explosions, harmful chemical or radioactive emissions thus affecting the environment.Outside of such high risk installations, if there is a risk of a direct lightning strike to the structure itself or to overhead lines to the structure SPDs will be required in accordance with BS EN 62305.Section 443 takes a direct approach for protection against transient overvoltages which is determined based on the consequence caused by overvoltage as per Table 1 above.Calculated Risk Level CRL – BS 7671BS 7671 clause 443.5 adopts a simplified version of risk assessment derived from the complete and complex risk assessment of BS EN 62305-2. A simple formula is used to determine a CalculatedRisk Level CRL. The CRL is best seen as a probability or chance of an installation being affected by transient overvoltages and is therefore used to determine if SPD protection is required.If the CRL value is less than 1000 (or less than a 1 in 1000 chance) then SPD protection shall be installed. Similarly if the CRL value is 1000 or higher (or greater than a 1 in 1000 chance) then SPD protection is not required for the installation.The CRL is found by the following formula:CRL = fenv / (LP x Ng)Where:• fenv is an environmental factor and the value of fenv shall be selected according to Table 443.1• LP is the risk assessment length in km• Ng is the lightning ground flash density (flashes per km² per year) relevant to the location of the power line and connected structure (see Lightning flash Density Ng map of UK in Figure 05)The fenv value is based on the structure'senvironment or location. In rural or suburban environments, structures are more isolated and therefore more exposed to overvoltages of atmospheric origin compared to structures in built up urban locations.Consequence caused by overvoltageExamplesTypical facilitiesOvervoltage protection required?Serious injury to or loss of human lifeLoss of safety services, medical care facilitiesHospitals, care homes, home dialysis equipmentYesInterruption of public services and/or damage to cultural heritageLoss of utility and IT services, damage to historic buildingsPower stations, data centres, heritage status buildings like museums, castlesYesInterruption of commercial or industrial activityLoss of electronic systems within service sectors, manufacturing processesBanks, hotels, supermarkets, industrial plants, farmsYesInterruption to an installation with a large number of co-located individualsLoss of safety systems for fire/security and access control, IT systemsOffices, universities, schools, residential tower blocksYesConsequences caused by overvoltage for a single dwelling unit where an assessment shows the total value of electrical installation and connected equipment does not necessitate the cost of SPD protection (443.4)Loss of household electronics does not warrant cost of overvoltage protectionResidential homesNoInterruption to all other cases than detailed aboveLoss of systems to small businessHome based office, convenience storePerform risk assessment of 443.5 to determine Calculated Risk Level CRLNo if CRL ≥ 1000 Yes if CRL < 1000Yes if no risk assessment is performed—Table 1 – Examples of overvoltage protection requirments to BS 7671";i:5;s:2498:"6IET WIRING REGULATIONS BS 7671 18TH EDITION—Key1) Surge arrestor (overvoltage protective device) on the overhead HV system2) HV/LV transformer3) Origin of the electrical installation—04 Lengths to consider for the calculation of Lp (Figure 443.3 BS 7671)123LPCHLPCLLPCLLPALLPAHRisk assessment length LPThe risk assessment length LP is calculated as follows:LP = 2 LPAL + LPCL + 0.4 LPAH + 0.2 LPCH (km)Where:• LPAL is the length (km) of low-voltage overhead line• LPCL is the length (km) of low-voltage under-ground cable• LPAH is the length (km) of high-voltage overhead line• LPCH is the length (km) of high-voltage under-ground cableThe total length (LPAL + LPCL + LPAH + LPCH) is limited to 1 km, or by the distance from the first overvoltage protective device installed in the HV power network (see Figure 04) to the origin of the electrical installation, whichever is the smaller.If the distribution network's lengths are totally or partially unknown then LPAL shall be taken as equal to the remaining distance to reach a total length of 1 km. For example, if only the distance of underground cable is known (e.g. 100 m), the most onerous factor LPAL shall be taken as equal to 900 m. An illustration of an installation showing the lengths to consider is shown in Figure 04 (Figure 443.3 of BS 7671).Ground flash density value NgThe ground flash density value Ng can be taken from the UK lightning flash density map in Figure 05 (Figure 443.1 of BS 7671) – simply determine where the location of the structure is and choose the value of Ng using the key. For example, central Nottingham has an Ng value of 1. Together with the environmental factor fenv, the risk assessment length LP, the Ng value can be used to complete the formula data for calculation of the CRL value and determine if overvoltage protection is required or not.The UK lightning flash density map (Figure 05) and a summary flowchart (Figure 06) to aid the decision making process for the application of Section 443 (with guidance to the Types of SPD guide to Section 534) follows. Some risk calculation examples are also provided.EnvironmentDefinitionExamplefenv valueRuralArea with a low density ofbuildingsCountryside85SuburbanArea with a medium density ofbuildingsTown outskirts85UrbanArea with a high density ofbuildings or densely populatedcommunities with tall buildingsTow n ce ntre850—Table 2 – Determination of fenv value based on environement (Table 443.1 BS 7671)—04";i:6;s:2125:"7DerryAntrimDownTyroneFermanaghArmaghCornwallDevonDorsetWiltshireSomersetHampshireSurreyWest SussexEast SussexIsle of WightKentLondonEssexHertfordshireSuffolkBucksBerksOxfordshireBedsCambridgeshireNorthantsRutlandNottsLeicestershireDerbyshireStaffordshireWest MidsWarwickshireGloucestershireWorcestershireNorth YorkshireWest YorkshireSouth Yorkshireof YorkshireEast RidingCarmarthenshireCeredigionPowysLancashireAngleseyCheshireGt ManchesterShropshireHerefordshireCumbriaDurhamNorthumberlandDumfries & GallowayScottish BordersMerseysideIsle of ManHighlandMorayAberdeenshireAngusFifePerth & KinrossArgyll & ButeStirlingDonegal33302532352726282434293121181920226101171512845211713916143DerryAntrimDownFermanaghArmaghCornwallDevonDorsetWiltshireSomersetHampshireSurreyWest SussexEast SussexIsle of WightKentLondonEssexHertfordshireSuffolkNorfolkBucksBerksOxfordshireBedsCambridgeshireRutlandLincolnshireNottsLeicestershireDerbyshireStaffordshireWest MidsWarwickshireGloucestershireWorcestershireNorth YorkshireWest YorkshireSouth Yorkshireof YorkshireEast RidingPembrokeshireCarmarthenshireCeredigionPowysLancashireAngleseyCheshireGt ManchesterShropshireHerefordshireCumbriaDurhamTyne & WearNorthumberlandDumfries & GallowayScottish BordersMerseysideIsle of ManHighlandMorayAberdeenshireAngusFifePerth & KinrossArgyll & ButeStirlingDonegal3330252332352726282434293121181920226101171512845211713916143UK FLASH DENSITY MAP—05 UK lightning flash density map (Figure 443.1 BS 7671)—Regions:1 City of Edinburgh2 City of Glasgow3 Clackmannanshire4 East Ayrshire5 East Dunbartonshire6 East Lothian7 East Renfrewshire8 Falkirk9 Inverclyde10 Midlothian11 North Ayrshire12 North Lanarkshire13 Renfrewshire14 South Ayrshire15 South Lanarkshire16 West Dunbartonshire17 West Lothian18 Conwy19 Denbighshire20 Flintshire21 Gwynedd22 Wrexham23 Bristol24 Blaenau Gwent25 Bridgend26 Caerphilly27 Cardiff28 Merthyr Tydfil29 Monmouthshire30 Neath & Port Talbot31 Newport32 Rhondda Cynon Taff33 Swansea34 Torfaen35 Vale of Glamorgan—© Copyright 2018 ABB. All rights reserved.Specifications subject to change without notice.";i:7;s:2274:"8IET WIRING REGULATIONS BS 7671 18TH EDITIONNOConsequences caused by overvoltage leads to interruption toall other installations than detailed above (443.4)—06STARTDirect or nearby lightning strokes onthe structure; or structureswith risk of explosion; or where the damage may also involve the environment (e.g. chemical or radioactive) (443.1.1)Protection against overvoltages required – selected and installed to Section 534Where the structure is equipped with an external lightning protection system LPS or protection against the effects of direct lightning on overhead lines Type 1 SPDs shall be installed as close as possible to the origin of the electrical installation (534.4.1.3).Where the structure is not equipped with an external LPS or does not require protection against the effects of direct lightning, Type 2 SPDs shall be installed as close as possible to the origin of the electrical installation (534.4.1.4).SPDs installed close to sensitive equipment to further protect against switching transients originating within the building shall be Type 2 or Type 3 (534.4.1.1).(Note SPDs can be combined Type SPDs e.g. T1+2, T1+2+3, T2+3–see Appendix 16).NOYESYESYESNOYESPerform risk assessment to determine Calculated Risk Level (CRL) value (443.5)YESYESCheck if data, signal and telecom lines require protection to preserve Lightning Protection Zones LPZ concept (443.1.1, 534.1, 534.4.1.2, 534.4.1.6) ENDRefer to BS EN 62305-2 for risk management to determine specific protection against overvoltage requirements (443.1.1, Note 8)Consequences caused by overvoltage leads to: a) Serious injury to or loss of human lifeb) Interruption of public services and/or damage to cultural heritage c) Interruption of commercial or industrial activity d) Interruption to an installation with a large number of co-located individuals (443.4)Consequences caused by overvoltage for a single dwelling unit where an assessment shows the total value of electrical installation and connected equipment does not necessitate the cost of SPD protection (443.4)Protection against overvoltages not required if equipment complies with required rated impulse voltage (Table 443.2)CRL value is ≥ 1000CRL < 1000 or if no risk assessment is performed";i:8;s:3456:"9EXAMPLES OF CALCULATED RISK LEVEL CRL FOR THE USE OF SPDSExamples of calculated risk level CRL for the use of SPDs (BS 7671 informative Annex A443).Example 1 - Building in rural environment in Notts with power supplied by overhead lines of which 0.4 km is LV line and 0.6 km is HV lineGround flash density Ng for central Notts = 1 (from Figure 05 UK flash density map).Environmental factor fenv = 85 (for rural environment – see Table 2)Risk assessment length LPLP = 2 LPAL + LPCL + 0.4 LPAH + 0.2 LPCHLP = (2 × 0.4) + (0.4 × 0.6)LP = 1.04Where:• LPAL is the length (km) of low-voltage overhead line = 0.4• LPAH is the length (km) of high-voltage overhead line = 0.6• LPCL is the length (km) of low-voltage underground cable = 0• LPCH is the length (km) of high-voltage underground cable = 0Calculated Risk Level (CRL)CRL = fenv / (LP × Ng)CRL = 85 / (1.04 × 1)CRL = 81.7In this case, SPD protection shall be installed as the CRL value is less than 1000.Example 2 - Building in suburban environment located in north Cumbria supplied by HV underground cableGround flash density Ng for north Cumbria = 0.1 (from Figure 05 UK flash density map)Environmental factor fenv = 85 (for suburban environment – see Table 2)Risk assessment length LPLP = 2 LPAL + LPCL + 0.4 LPAH + 0.2 LPCHLP = 0.2 x 1LP = 0.2Where:• LPAL is the length (km) of low-voltage overhead line = 0• LPAH is the length (km) of high-voltage overhead line = 0• LPCL is the length (km) of low-voltage underground cable = 0• LPCH is the length (km) of high-voltage underground cable = 1Calculated Risk Level (CRL)CRL = fenv / (LP × Ng)CRL = 85 / (0.2 × 0.1)CRL = 4250In this case, SPD protection is not a requirement as CRL value is greater than 1000.Example 3 - Building in urban environment located in southern Shropshire – supply details unknownGround flash density Ng for southern Shropshire = 0.5 (from Figure 05 UK flash density map).Environmental factor fenv = 850 (for urban environment – see Table 2)Risk assessment length LPLP = 2 LPAL + LPCL + 0.4 LPAH + 0.2 LPCHLP = (2 x 1)LP = 2Where:• LPAL is the length (km) of low-voltage overhead line = 1 (details of supply feed unknown – maximum 1 km)• LPAH is the length (km) of high-voltage overhead line = 0• LPCL is the length (km) of low-voltage underground cable = 0• LPCH is the length (km) of high-voltage underground cable = 0Calculated Risk Level CRLCRL = fenv / (LP × Ng)CRL = 850 / (2 × 0.5)CRL = 850In this case, SPD protection shall be installed as the CRL value is less than 1000.Example 4 - Building in urban environment located in London supplied by LV underground cableGround flash density Ng for London = 0.8 (from Figure 05 UK flash density map)Environmental factor fenv = 850 (for urban environment – see Table 2)Risk assessment length LPLP = 2 LPAL + LPCL + 0.4 LPAH + 0.2 LPCHLP = 1Where:• LPAL is the length (km) of low-voltage overhead line = 0• LPAH is the length (km) of high-voltage overhead line = 0• LPCL is the length (km) of low-voltage underground cable = 1• LPCH is the length (km) of high-voltage underground cable = 0Calculated Risk Level (CRL)CRL = fenv / (LP × Ng)CRL = 850 / (1 × 0.8)CRL = 1062.5In this case, SPD protection is not a requirement as the CRL value is greater than 1000.—06 Risk assementSPD decision flow chart for installations within the scope of this BS 7671 18th Edition.PPP";i:9;s:2828:"10IET WIRING REGULATIONS BS 7671 18TH EDITIONSPD selectionSPDs should be selected according to the following requirements:• Voltage protection level (UP)• Continuous operating voltage (UC)• Temporary overvoltages (UTOV)• Nominal discharge current (Inspd) and impulse current (Iimp)• Prospective fault current and the follow current interrupt ratingThe most important aspect in SPD selection is its voltage protection level (UP). The SPD’s voltage protection level (UP) must be lower than the rated impulse voltage (UW) of protected electrical equipment (defined within Table 443.2), or for continuous operation of critical equipment, its impulse immunity.Where unknown, impulse immunity can be calculated as twice the peak operating voltage of the electrical system (i.e. approximately 715 V for 230 V systems). Non-critical equipment connected to a 230/400 V fixed electrical installation (e.g. a UPS system) would require protection by an SPD with a UP lower than Category II rated impulse voltage (2.5 kV). Sensitive equipment, such as laptops and PCs, would require additional SPD protection to Category I rated impulse voltage (1.5 kV).These figures should be considered as achieving a minimal level of protection. SPDs with lower voltage protection levels (UP) offer much better protection, by:• Reducing risk from additive inductive voltages on the SPD’s connecting leads• Reducing risk from voltage oscillations downstream which could reach up to twice the SPD’s UP at the equipment terminals• Keeping equipment stress to a minimum, as well as improving operating lifetimeIn essence, an enhanced SPD (SPD* to BS EN 62305)would best meet the selection criteria, as such SPDs offer voltage protection levels (UP) considerably lower than equipment's damage thresholds and thereby are more effective in achieving a protective state. As per BS EN 62305, all SPDs installed to meet the requirements of BS 7671 shall conform to theproduct and testing standards (BS EN 61643 series).Selection of SPDs to BS 7671The scope of Section 534 of BS 7671 is to achieve overvoltage limitation within AC power systems to obtain insulation co-ordination, in line with Section 443, and other standards, including BS EN 62305-4.Overvoltage limitiation is achieved through installation of SPDs as per the recommendations in Section 534 (for AC power systems), and BS EN 62305-4 (for other power and data, signal or telecommunications lines).Selection of SPDs should achieve the limitation of transient overvoltages of atmospheric origin, and protection against transient overvoltages caused by direct lightning strikes or lightning strikes in the vicinity of a building protected by a structural Lightning Protection System LPS.—Transient overvoltage protectionSelection of SPDs to BS 7671";i:10;s:3866:"11ESP 415/I/TNSL1NEnhanced Mains Protector250 AgLIf RED replacelimp = 25kA/modelmax = 100kA/modeln = 25kA/modeUc = 320VACUp < 1.4kVUres(limp) < 1.3kVL2L3PEEnhancedMainsProtectorEN/IEC 61643PATENTAPPLIEDFORLL'L2L2'L3L3'NN'111412STATUSPEOCPDOCPDMain earthing terminalOCPDOCPD: Overcurrent protective device (eg. fuse MCB)ESP 415 D1/LCD with Type 2performance installed at sub-distribution protects fixedequipment on the electricalinstallation against transientovervoltages.ESP 415/I/TNS with Type 1performance installed atservice entrance to diverthigh energy lightningcurrents to earth, and remove risk of flashover.Combined Type 2+3performance of the SPDinstalled at sub-distributionprotects downstreamsensitive equipment againsttransient overvoltages.Plug-in ESP MC with Type 3 performance protects criticalequipment at local levelagainst switching transients.Linelength> 10 mService entrance/Main distribution boardFixed equipment (e.g. UPS)Critical equipment (e.g. hospitalequipment)Risk ofswitchingtransientESP 415 D1/LCD Full ModeType 1+2+3 SPDESP 415/I/TNSType 1+2 SPDSub-distribution boardTerminal equipmentLinelength> 10 mL1L2L3NL1L2L3NPEPEN—Transient overvoltage protectionSelection of SPDs to BS 7671—07—07 Typical installation on a 230/400 V TN-C-S/TN-S system, using FurseSPDs, to meet the requirements of BS 7671.Figure 07 demonstrates how effective protection comprises a service entrance SPD to divert high energy lightning currents to earth, followed by coordinated downstream SPDs at appropriate points to protect sensitive and critical equipment. Selecting appropriate SPDsSPDs are classified by Type within BS 7671 following the criteria established in BS EN 62305.Where a building includes a structural LPS, or connected overhead metallic services at risk from a direct lightning strike, equipotential bonding SPDs (Type 1 or Combined Type 1+2) mustbe installed at the service entrance, to remove risk of flashover.Installation of Type 1 SPDs alone however does not provide protection to electronic systems. Transient overvoltage SPDs (Type 2 and Type 3, or Combined Type 1+2+3 and Type 2+3) should therefore be installed downstream of the serviceentrance.These SPDs further protect against those transient overvoltages caused by indirect lightning (via resistive or inductive coupling) and electrical switching of inductive loads.Combined Type SPDs (such as the Furse ESP D1 Series and ESP M1/M2/M4 Series) significantly simplify the SPD selection process, whether installing at the service entrance or downstream in the electrical system.Compared to standard SPDs, enhanced SPDs offer both technical and economic advantages:• Combined equipotential bonding and transient overvoltage protection (Type 1+2 & Type 1+2+3)• Full mode (common and differential mode) protection, essential to safeguard sensitive electronic equipment from all types of transient overvoltage - lightning & switching and• Effective SPD co-ordination within a single unit versus installation of multiple standard Type SPDs to protect terminal equipment—Compliance to BS EN 62305/BS 7671BS 7671 Section 534 focuses guidance on selection and installation of SPDs to limittransient overvoltages on the AC power supply.BS 7671 Section 443 states that‚ transient overvoltages transmitted by the supply distribution system are not significantly attenuated downstream in most installations BS 7671 Section 534 therefore recommends that SPDs are installed at key locations in the electrical system:• As close as practicable to the origin of the installation (usually in the main distribution board after the meter)• As close as practicable to sensitive equipment (sub-distribution level), and local to critical equipmentFigure 07 shows a typical installation on a 230/400 V TN-CS/TN-S system using Furse SPDs, to meet the requirements of BS 7671.";i:11;s:3293:"12IET WIRING REGULATIONS BS 7671 18TH EDITIONSupply typeExample 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 No external lightning protection system fittedNo external lightning protection system fittedExternal lightning protection system fittedExternal lightning protection system fittedUnderground mainssupply feedExposed overhead mainssupply feedMultiple connectedmetallic servicesNo. of services unknown3 Phase 400 VService entrance, afterelectricity meter (Maindistribution board (MDB)).Type 1+2+3 SPDs such as the ESP M and D series are used where the MDB directly feeds critical electronicsESP 415 D1 OR ESP 415 M1Series Series ESP 415/III/TNS OR ESP 415 M2 Series for ESP 415 D1 OR ESP 415 M1Series SeriesFor LPL I & II: OR ESP 415 M4ESP 415/I/TNS Series for LPL III or IV:ESP 415/III/TNSSub-distribution board (SDB) Type 1+2+3 Located >10 m fromMDB feeding electronicequipment For 3 Phase 400 V OR ESP 415 D1 Series, or ESP 415 M1 Series For 1 Phase 230 V OR ESP 240 D1 Series, or ESP 240 M1 Series Final circuit equipment For 13 A sockets (e.g. servers) Fused spurs Consumer unitsLocated >10 m from SDB — Protection for 230/400 V TN-S or TN-C-S supplies— Protection for data signal and telecoms applicationsLPSLPSGroundlevelGroundlevelPower Unknown PowerData TelecomWaterGas GroundlevelGroundlevelPower PowerGroundlevel—ABB Furse ESP range of SPDsEnhanced solutions to BS EN 62305/BS 7671The Furse ESP range of SPDs (power, data and telecom) are widely specified in all applications to ensure the continuous operation of critical electronic systems. They form part of a completelightning protection solution to BS EN 62305.Furse ESP M and ESP D power SPD products are Type 1+2+3 devices, making them suitable for installation at the service entrance, whilst giving superior voltage protection levels (enhanced to BS EN 62305) between all conductors or modes. The active status indication informs the user of:• Loss of power • Loss of phase• Excessive N-E voltage • Reduced protectionMain distribution board (MDB) Type 1+2+3 Type 1+2 OR Type 1+2+3 Type 1+2+3 Type 1+2 OR Type 1+2+3ESP MCESP MC/TN/RJ11ESP MC/Cat-5eESP 240D-10AESP 240D-32AFurse MMP 2C275/1+1Tcritical electronicscritical electronics—The SPD and supply status can also be monitored remotely via the volt-free contact. ";i:12;s:2685:"13• When one component is damged, the mechanical indicator will switch to half green / half red, triggering the volt-free contact• At this stage the product should be replaced, but the user still has protection during the ordering and installation process• When both components are damaged, the end of life indicator will become completely red Part No. / Order code Description Features OVR T1-T2 3N 12.5-275s P TS QS / 2CTB815710R0700TNS/TT 230/400V 3Ph+N networksType 1+2 ABB surge protective devices have a high impulse current (10/350 waveform) withstand capacity whilst ensuring a low (better) voltage protection level (Up)Multi-mode protectionEnd of life SPD visual indicator with safety reserveDIN rail mounting for quick installationCompact designAuxillary contact TS for remote status indicationQuicksafe® disconnection at end of life— Main section boardCharacteristics Part No. / Order code Description Features OVR T2 3N 40-275s P TS QS / 2CTB815704R0800TNS/TT 230/400V 3Ph+N networksType 2 ABB surge protective devices are designed to protect electrical installations and sensitive equipment against indirect surge currentsMulti-mode protectionEnd of life SPD visual indicator with safety reservePlug-in cartridgeDIN rail mounting for quick installationAuxillary contact TS for remote status indicationQuicksafe® disconnection at end of life— Sub-distribution boardCharacteristics Part No. / Order code Description Features OVR T2 1N 40-275s P TS QS / 2CTB815704R0200 TNS/TT 230V 1Ph+N networksType 2 ABB surge protective devices are designed to protect electrical installations and sensitive equipment against indirect surge currentsMulti-mode protectionEnd of life SPD visual indicator with safety reservePlug-in cartridgeDIN rail mounting for quick installationAuxillary contact TS for remote status indicationQuicksafe® disconnection at end of life— Consumer unitCharacteristicsCOMPACTSPACESAVINGDESIGNlimp12.5kAIEC 61643-11EN 61643-11ALARMRES ONlmax40kAPlug-inMODULEIEC 61643-11EN 61643-11TSAUXILIARYCONTACTALARMRES ONlmax20kAPlug-inMODULEIEC 61643-11EN 61643-11TSAUXILIARYCONTACTABB OVR POWER SPDS - COST EFFECTIVE PROTECTION TO BS 7671The ABB OVR range of SPDs compliment ABB's DIN rail product solutions offering cost effective protection for commercial, industrial and domestic installations.Safety reserve system• Two protection components in parallel inside a cartridge guarantee best possible protection—ABB OVR power SPDs Cost effective protection to BS 7671TSAUXILIARYCONTACTPlug-inMODULEALARMRES ONFurse MMP 2C275/1+1T";i:13;s:3659:"14IET WIRING REGULATIONS BS 7671 18TH EDITION—Installation of SPDs Section 534, BS 7671Ty peOCPD seriesESP 415/I/TNSESP 415/III/TNSESP 415 M4***ESP 415 M2**ESP 415 M1*ESP 415 D1OVR T1-T2 3N 12.5-275s P TS QSOVR T2 3N 40-275s P TS QSOVR T2 1N 40-275s P TS QS****Order code7TCA085460R01017TCA085460R01037TCA085460R01247TCA085460R01197TCA085460R01127TCA085460R01052CTB815710R07002CTB815704R08002CTB815704R0200ApplicationMCBMin - Max. rated currentDomesticSH201B 6A - 40A ––––––––lControl / CommercialS201C 6A - 63A––––––––lCommercial / IndustrialS201MC 6A - 63A––––––––lControl / CommercialS203C 6A - 63A llllllll–Commercial / IndustrialS203MC6A - 63Allllllll– FuseControl / CommercialE 91/32 6A - 32 A––––––––lCommercial / IndustrialE 93/326A - 32 Allllllll–Control / CommercialE 91/50 6A - 50A ––––––––lCommercial / IndustrialE 93/506A - 50Allllllll–Control / CommercialE 91/125 6A - 125A ––––––––lCommercial / IndustrialE 93/1256A - 125Allllllll–MCCBCommercial / IndustrialXT1 125A16A - 125Allllllll–Commercial / IndustrialXT1 160A16A - 160Allll––ll–Commercial / IndustrialXT3 250A63A - 250Allll–––––Key: l Suitable / – Not suitable. Maximum OCPD ratings must be in accordance with the installation to follow co-ordination rules with main or upstream short-circuit protection.—Table 3 – Compatible overcurrent protection – Product selection guideBest practicePoor installation can significantly reduce effectiveness of SPDs. Therefore, keeping connecting leads as short as possible is vitalto maximise performance, and minimise additive inductive voltages.Best practice cabling techniques, such as binding together connecting leads over as much of their length as possible, using cable ties or spiral wrap, is highly effective in cancelling inductance.The combination of an SPD with low voltage protection level (UP), and short, tightly bound connecting leads ensure optimised installation to the requirements of BS 7671.Cross-sectional area of connecting conductorsFor SPDs connected at the origin of the installation (service entrance) BS 7671 requires the minimum cross-sectional area size of SPDs connecting leads (copper or equivalent) to PE/live conductors respectively to be:• 16 mm²/6 mm² for Type 1 SPDs• 6 mm²/2.5 mm² for Type 2 SPDs—Installation of SPDs to BS 7671Critical length of connecting conductorsAn installed SPD will always present a higher let through voltage to equipment compared with the voltage protection level (UP) stated on a manufacturer’s data sheet, due to additive inductive voltage drops across the conductors on the SPD’s connecting leads.Therefore, for maximum transient overvoltage protection the SPD's connecting conductors must be kept as short as possible. BS 7671 defines that for SPDs installed inparallel (shunt), the total lead length between line conductors, protective conductor and SPD preferably should not exceed 0.5 m and never exceed 1 m. See Figure 08 (overleaf) for example.For SPDs installed in-line (series), the lead length between the protective conductor and SPD preferably should not exceed 0.5 m and never exceed 1 m.—* For ESP 240 M1 (7TCA085460R0089) and ESP 415 M1R (7TCA085460R0115), use same overcurrent protection selection as ESP 415 M1.—** For ESP 415 M2R(7TCA085460R0123)use same overcurrentprotection selectionas ESP 415 M2 .—***For ESP 415 M4R(7TCA085460R0126)use same overcurrentprotection selectionESP 415 M4.—**** For FurseMMP 2C275/1+1T(7TCA085460R0185)use same overcurrentprotection selectionas OVR T2 1N40-275sP TS QS.";i:14;s:2701:"15INSTALLATION OF SPDS - SECTION 534, BS 7671Ty peOCPD seriesESP 415/I/TNSESP 415/III/TNSESP 415 M4***ESP 415 M2**ESP 415 M1*ESP 415 D1OVR T1-T2 3N 12.5-275s P TS QSOVR T2 3N 40-275s P TS QSOVR T2 1N 40-275s P TS QS****Order code7TCA085460R01017TCA085460R01037TCA085460R01247TCA085460R01197TCA085460R01127TCA085460R01052CTB815710R07002CTB815704R08002CTB815704R0200ApplicationMCBMin - Max. rated currentDomesticSH201B 6A - 40A ––––––––lControl / CommercialS201C 6A - 63A––––––––lCommercial / IndustrialS201MC 6A - 63A––––––––lControl / CommercialS203C 6A - 63A llllllll–Commercial / IndustrialS203MC6A - 63Allllllll– FuseControl / CommercialE 91/32 6A - 32 A––––––––lCommercial / IndustrialE 93/326A - 32 Allllllll–Control / CommercialE 91/50 6A - 50A ––––––––lCommercial / IndustrialE 93/506A - 50Allllllll–Control / CommercialE 91/125 6A - 125A ––––––––lCommercial / IndustrialE 93/1256A - 125Allllllll–MCCBCommercial / IndustrialXT1 125A16A - 125Allllllll–Commercial / IndustrialXT1 160A16A - 160Allll––ll–Commercial / IndustrialXT3 250A63A - 250Allll–––––Key: l Suitable / – Not suitable. Maximum OCPD ratings must be in accordance with the installation to follow co-ordination rules with main or upstream short-circuit protection.Therefore an SPD needs to be protected against short circuits through the use of an appropriate OCPD capable of eliminating the short-circuit. In effect, the SPD should have a dedicated OCPD installed in-line on its connecting leads, ensuring that this OCPD to the SPD discriminates with the upstream OCPD of the main supply.SPD manufacturers should provide clear guidance for the selection of the correct ratings of over current protection devices OCPDs in their SPD installation instructions.These cross-sectional area values are based on the surge current that these SPD connecting leads need to handle, not the supply current.However, in the event of a short circuit, for example due to the end of life condition of the SPD, the connecting leads to the SPD would need to be protected by a suitable Overcurrent Protective Device (OCPD).Fault protectionBS 7671 defines requirements to ensure that fault protection shall remain effective in the protected installation even in the case of failure of SPDs.— Other products to consider(see page 17)—01—02—03—01 ESP SL SeriesFor protection of twisted pair signalling applications.—02 ESP Cat 6 SeriesFor protection of local area networks up toCat 6 including Power over Ethernet (PoE).—03 ESP TN/JP SeriesFor protection of equipment connectedto BT telephone (BS 6312) socket.";i:15;s:2187:"16IET WIRING REGULATIONS BS 7671 18TH EDITIONLNT2CT1Iimp4kAIn20kAImaxoc40kAU6kVczacU280V 47-63HBDT3125 AgL!GREENFULL PROTECTIONGREEN & REDREDUCEDPROTECTION(replace unit)REDNO PROTECTIONWARNING: If lit / flashing disconnectunit & check Neutralto Earth voltageEN/IEC 61643PATENTAPPLIEDFORSTATUS INDICATIONESP 240D1LL1N1N111412STATUSSTATTTUSAAOCPDOCPDSPD< 0.25 m< 0.25 mMain earthingterminal orconnectingconductor barMultiple terminalequipment protectedby SPD at sub-distribution—08NOTE: SPD connections should be kept as short as possible, ideally below 0.25 m between SPD, live conductors & earth, but in any case not more than 0.5 m, to reduce risk of additive inductive voltage drops across the conductors.—08 Total lead length for SPDs installed in parallel.—01 ESP 415 D1/LCD.It is important to ensure that the maximum OCPD rating delared by the SPD manufacturer is never exceeded. However, the maximum OCPD value declared by the SPD manufacturer does not consider the need to discriminate the SPD’s OCPD from that of the upstream supply.Selection of the appropriate OCPD in-line with the SPD must must therefore be in accordance with the installation to follow co-ordination rules with the main or upstream short circuit protection. Table 3 (see p.14) details the suitable ABB OCPD series for the Furse and ABB range of SPDs.Installers should refer to OCPD manufacturers’ operating characteristics to ensure discrimination, particularly where an installation includes a mixture of types of OCPD.The OCPD must be coordinated with the SPD to ensure reliable operation and continuity of service. The OCPD, being in-line with the SPD, must withstand the surge current whilst limiting its residual voltage, and most importantly the OCPD must ensure effective protection against all types of overcurrents.In accordance with BS EN 61643 SPD product test standards, SPD manufacturers have to declare the maximum OCPD rating that can safely be used with their SPD.The OCPD rating is selected as part of the SPD testing process to ensure that the full SPD preconditioning and operating duty tests, including the maximum SPD surge current test, do not cause the OCPD to operate.—01";i:16;s:1378:"17 Product range Description Features ESP SL SeriesTwo stage removable protection module with simple quick release mechanism allows partial release for easy line commissioning and maintenance, as well as full removal for protection replacementAvailable in 6 V, 15 V, 30 V, 50 V, 110 V and analogue telephone variantsEarthed and isolated screen versions availableOptional LED status indication available15 V and 30 V models versions available with ATEX / IECEx approvals— ESP SL Series – for protection of twisted pair signalling applications Product range Features ESP Cat-5e/6 SeriesDifferent models available to protect Cat-5e / Cat-6 and PoE versions of bothWill protect all PoE powering modes A and BSuitable for shielded or unshielded twisted pair installationsWill not impair the system’s normal operation— ESP Cat-5e / 6 series – for protection of local area networks Part No. Features ESP TN/JPComes with BT (BS 6312) jack-plug for ease of installationAlso available with RJ11 connectorsRJ11 and JP versions suitable for use on lines with a maximum ringing voltage of 296 VISDN suitable models with RJ45 connectors available— ESP TN/JP – for protection of equipment connected to BT telephone (BS 6312) socket—Other products to consider";i:17;s:2121:"18IET WIRING REGULATIONS BS 7671 18TH EDITION—Efficiency you can touchPlug in components during ongoing operationEven safer: Protection against electrical hazardsWe have upgraded our unique SMISSLINE socket system even further through the addition of a pioneering innovation. With the new SMISSLINE TP system, components can now be plugged in or unplugged load-free without any risk from electrical current running through the body. The SMISSLINE TP pluggable socket system is completely finger-safe (IP20B) – when devices are plugged in and un- plugged, the system is always touch-proof. This means that SMISSLINE TP prevents any danger to personnel from switching arcs or accidental arcing.Even more flexible: make additions and changes during ongoing operationPluggable devices can be added and changed quickly, safely and simply during ongoing operation. And this can be done without any need for personal protective equipment. This means that you benefit from more flexibility, savings on installation and maintenance – and improved safety. SMISSLINE TP provides greater availability and operating safety than conventional systems.Isn (8/20 μs) (ka) Product typeOrder code EAN No. Packaging unit Module Weight (g) 20OVR404 4L 40-275 P TS QS2CCF606000R0001761 227 145 54911147020OVR404 3N 40-275 P TS QS2CCF606002R0001761 227 145 55071145020OVR404 4L 40-440 P TS QS2CCF606000R0003761 227 146 532211470— SMISSLINE Type 2 Surge protector13121234567891011—01 Incoming block 100/160 A.—02 Surge arrester.—03 Control unit for current measurement system.—04 2-pole residual current operated circuit breaker with overcurrent protection.—05 4-pole residual current operated circuit breaker with overcurrent protection.—06 2-pole residual current operated circuit breaker.—07 4-pole residual current operated circuitbreaker.—08 Incoming block 63 A.—09 Miniature circuit breaker 1 pole.—10 Device latch.—11 Miniature circuit breaker 3 poles.—12 Miniature circuit breaker 2 poles.—13 4-pole residual current operated circuit breaker with overcurrent protection.";i:18;s:28:"ARTICLE OR CHAPTER TITLE1919";i:19;s:321:"© Copyright 2018 ABB. All rights reserved. Specifications subject to change without notice.—ABB FurseWilford RoadNottingham, UKNG2 1EBTel: +44 (0) 115 964 3700Fax: +44 (0) 115 986 0071Sales Tel: +44 (0) 333 999 9900Sales Fax: +44 (0) 333 999 9901E-Mail: [email protected] www.furse.com9AKK107046A7579 REV A 06.2018";}


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This article is very badly written and contains a number of "untruths"

Translated ........... vested interests (manufacturers) have persuaded JPEL/64 to include unnecessary and unproven technology into BS 7671 18th edition (so said manufacturers can ake more profit)

I will be ignoring this technology for the time being and will make sure my CPS is aware of my thoughts as and when I have my annual assessment.

 
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And they will give a flying 💩 For what reason ?

they don't care as long as they get there money


Well ............... they are the only people who may listen to this ................. all the numpties in the IET and JPEL/64 certainly don't listen to us

As for the money ........... the amount of notifiable work I'm doing is dropping and some of it is covered by planning permission .................. so how long do I need a CPS for ?

Apathy about the 18th edition seems rife around my wholesalers ...............

 
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